NOTE: Please note that this article refers to an old version of Angular. Core concepts and ideas may still be useful but not all examples will work with current Angular without changes.
Sometimes it is the simple things that can cost you hours when looking at new technology. For me it was creating an asynchronous binding in Angular2.
I wanted to create a re-usable child component that would receive data, then edit it and finally pass the changed value back to the parent component. Also I wanted the incoming value to be immutable so, before making changes to the data in the child component, I first wanted to make a copy of it.
All worked perfectly smoothly while using static local data, but then I refactored it to fetch data from the server using Http and suddenly it was a few hours later with my application bleeding red undefined error messages all over my Chrome console.
So come with me, oh intrepid Angular2 adventurer, let us discover together how to consume an Observable in a child component without using *ngIf whilst still retaining an immutable object as component input.
Simple binding eh? What gives?
It all started with what seemed like a completely innocent child component:
Next, the template for the component, where the properties of the incoming input were displayed and edited in input fields:
And, for clarity sake, this is the definition of the Contact data model:
This all works very well until the incoming value is fetched from an Observable stream.
Because, at the time of ngOnInit, the value has not yet been resolved from the Observable.
Oh the horror! There was a monster loose in the once peaceful and happy town of AngularComponent. We need a superhero!
Is it a bird? Is it a plane? It’s ASYNC PIPE!
The following snippet of HTML shows our child component binding to a data item called selectedPerson in the parent component. This works like a charm when binding to a locally defined static object:
But as soon as this selectedPerson object is populated by subscribing to an observable, the undefined errors starts to appear.
There has to be a way to solve this without using *ngIf or sacrificing the immutable input…
And indeed, Angular2 gives us a very natural way to directly subscribe to an Observable stream in your HTML by using the Async pipe.
So in the parent component we could store the Observable in selectedPerson:
And then it should magically work by changing the HTML above to:
Even though the async pipe handles subscribing to the observable, the child component will still initialize before the data hits the the person input. And the undefined errors continue to pour out on the console.
ngOnChanges: The secret sauce.
So up to this point we have data being fetched asynchronously and then being resolved and passed into a child component. However, there is nothing telling the child component to calm down, relax, and wait a little before making a copy of the data. There was one more required change.
A quick dive in the Angular2 Docs reveals a lifecycle hook we can use. And that is ngOnChanges.
What this does it to react to changes to the @Input() values of the component. BINGO!
As we are treating the input as immutable, the function will only be executed when the data is changed by the parent component, thereby also avoiding unnecessary execution of the code inside the function.
So our child component becomes:
It starts off by newing up data model. Firstly, this avoids the ngModel bindings from freaking out and giving undefined errors and, secondly, allows this component to also create new entries of the same type.
Then we can implement the ngOnChanges function. Note that this is best done by implementing the OnChanges TypeScript interface that Angular2 gives us.
Every change to our incoming person input will now trigger this function at which point we can check if it is indeed filled and, if so, we can safely make a copy of the data into the internal model of our child component. Now everything starts working as planned again.
And so we have restored calm to the town of AngularComponent. The Monster of Undefined has been slain.
Points to remember:
- Store your Observable stream in a data item inside your parent component.
- Use ngOnChanges to watch the immutable input in your child component.
- Then connect them up in the HTML template of your parent component using the Async Pipe.